The following article sorts the urban districts (Kreisfreie Städte – cities that constitute 32, Mainz · Rhineland-Palatinate, , 57,, 77, Willkommen bei der JUNGEN GRUPPE (GdP) Saar und fristgerecht an die Abteilung D -Referat D4- Mainzer Straße , Saarbrücken, zu richten seien. Mainz (dpa/lrs) - Die rheinland-pfälzische Gewerkschaft der Polizei (GdP) kritisiert ein zunehmend respektloses und aggressives Verhalten.
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He extended his reign to Cambrai and Tongeren in —, and repelled the Alamanni in Also in that year he converted to Catholicism from non- Arian Christianity.
Clovis annexed the kingdom of Cologne in Thereafter, Mainz, in its strategic position, became one of the bases of the Frankish kingdom.
Mainz had sheltered a Christian community long before the conversion of Clovis. His successor Dagobert I reinforced the walls of Mainz and made it one of his seats.
A solidus of Theodebert I — was minted at Mainz. Charlemagne — , through a succession of wars against other tribes, built a vast Frankian empire in Europe.
Mainz from its central location became important to the empire and to Christianity. Meanwhile, language change was gradually working to divide the Franks.
Mainz spoke a dialect termed Ripuarian. On the death of Charlemagne, distinctions between France and Germany began to be made. Mainz was not central any longer but was on the border, creating a question of the nationality to which it belonged, which descended into modern times as the question of Alsace-Lorraine.
The first archbishop in Mainz, Boniface , was killed in while trying to convert the Frisians to Christianity and is buried in Fulda.
Boniface held a personal title of archbishop; Mainz became a regular archbishopric see in , when Boniface's successor Lullus was granted the pallium by Pope Adrian I.
Harald Klak , king of Jutland, his family and followers, were baptized at Mainz in , in the abbey of St. From the time of Willigis until the end of the Holy Roman Empire in , the Archbishops of Mainz were archchancellors of the Empire and the most important of the seven Electors of the German emperor.
Besides Rome, the diocese of Mainz today is the only diocese in the world with an episcopal see that is called a Holy See sancta sedes. The Archbishops of Mainz traditionally were primas germaniae , the substitutes of the Pope north of the Alps.
In , Archbishop Siegfried III granted Mainz a city charter, which included the right of the citizens to establish and elect a city council. The city saw a feud between two archbishops in , namely Diether von Isenburg , who was elected Archbishop by the cathedral chapter and supported by the citizens, and Adolf II von Nassau , who had been named archbishop for Mainz by the pope.
In , the Archbishop Adolf raided the city of Mainz, plundering and killing inhabitants. At a tribunal, those who had survived lost all their property, which was then divided between those who promised to follow Adolf.
Those who would not promise to follow Adolf amongst them Johannes Gutenberg were driven out of the town or thrown into prison.
The new archbishop revoked the city charter of Mainz and put the city under his direct rule. Ironically, after the death of Adolf II his successor was again Diether von Isenburg, now legally elected by the chapter and named by the Pope.
The Jewish community of Mainz dates to the 10th century CE. It is noted for its religious education. Rabbi Gershom ben Judah — taught there, among others.
He concentrated on the study of the Talmud , creating a German Jewish tradition. Mainz is also the legendary home of the martyred Rabbi Amnon of Mainz , composer of the Unetanneh Tokef prayer.
The Jews of Mainz, Speyer and Worms created a supreme council to set standards in Jewish law and education in the 12th century. The city of Mainz responded to the Jewish population in a variety of ways, behaving, in a sense, in a bipolar fashion towards them.
Sometimes they were allowed freedom and were protected; at other times, they were persecuted. The Jews were expelled in , after which they were invited to return , and in Jews were attacked in and by mobs in Outbreaks of the Black Death were usually blamed on the Jews, at which times they were massacred, such as the burning of 11 Jews alive in Nowadays the Jewish community is growing rapidly, and a new synagogue by the architect Manuel Herz was constructed in on the site of the one destroyed by the Nazis on Kristallnacht in On 18 March , the Jacobins of Mainz, with other German democrats from about towns in the Rhenish Palatinate , proclaimed the ' Republic of Mainz '.
Led by Georg Forster , representatives of the Mainz Republic in Paris requested political affiliation of the Mainz Republic with France, but too late: Prussia was not entirely happy with the idea of a democratic free state on German soil although the French dominated Mainz was neither free nor democratic.
Prussian troops had already occupied the area and besieged Mainz by the end of March After a siege of 18 weeks, the French troops in Mainz surrendered on 23 July ; Prussians occupied the city and ended the Republic of Mainz.
It came to the Battle of Mainz in between Austria and France. Members of the Mainz Jacobin Club were mistreated or imprisoned and punished for treason.
In , the French returned. Austria and Prussia could not but approve this new border with France in From to , to the German Confederation Mainz was the most important fortress in the defence against France, and had a strong garrison of Austrian, Prussian and Bavarian troops.
On the afternoon of 18 November , a huge explosion rocked Mainz when the city's powder magazine, the Pulverturm , exploded.
Approximately people were killed and at least injured; 57 buildings were destroyed and a similar number severely damaged in what was to be known as the Powder Tower Explosion or Powder Explosion.
During the Austro-Prussian War in , Mainz was declared a neutral zone. For centuries the inhabitants of the fortress of Mainz had suffered from a severe shortage of space which led to disease and other inconveniences.
In Mayor Carl Wallau and the council of Mainz persuaded the military government to sign a contract to expand the city.
Beginning in , the city of Mainz assimilated the Gartenfeld , an idyllic area of meadows and fields along the banks of the Rhine to the north of the rampart.
The city expansion more than doubled the urban area which allowed Mainz to participate in the industrial revolution which had previously avoided the city for decades.
He also planned the first sewer system for the old part of town since Roman times and persuaded the city government to relocate the railway line from the Rhine side to the west end of the town.
The Mainz master builder constructed a number of state-of-the-art public buildings, including the Mainz town hall — which was the largest of its kind in Germany at that time — as well a synagogue, the Rhine harbour and a number of public baths and school buildings.
In the demolition of the entire circumvallation and the Rheingauwall was taken in hand, according to imperial order of Wilhelm II.
During the German Revolution of the Mainz Workers' and Soldiers' Council was formed which ran the city from 9 November until the arrival of French troops under the terms of the occupation of the Rhineland agreed in the Armistice.
The French occupation was confirmed by the Treaty of Versailles which went into effect 28 June The Rhineland in which Mainz is located was to be a demilitarized zone until and the French garrison, representing the Triple Entente , was to stay until reparations were paid.
In Mainz participated in the Rhineland separatist movement that proclaimed a republic in the Rhineland. It collapsed in The French withdrew on 30 June Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in January and his political opponents, especially those of the Social Democratic Party, were either incarcerated or murdered.
Some were able to move away from Mainz in time. One was the political organizer for the SPD, Friedrich Kellner , who went to Laubach, where as the chief justice inspector of the district court he continued his opposition against the Nazis by recording their misdeeds in a page diary.
They hoisted the swastika on all public buildings and began to denounce the Jewish population in the newspapers.
In , the Nazis remilitarized the Rhineland with great fanfare, the first move of Nazi Germany 's meteoric expansion. The former Triple Entente took no action.
During World War II, more than 30 air raids destroyed about 80 percent of the city's center, including most of the historic buildings. Mainz was captured on 22 March against uneven German resistance staunch in some sectors and weak in other parts of the city by the 90th Infantry Division under William A.
Patton , Jr. From to , the city was part of the French zone of occupation. Mainz is home to the headquarters of the Bundeswehr' s Landeskommando Rhineland-Palatinate and other units.
The following list shows the largest minority groups in Mainz as of [update] :. The destruction caused by the bombing of Mainz during World War II led to the most intense phase of building in the history of the town.
During the last war in Germany, more than 30 air raids destroyed about 80 percent of the city's center, including most of the historic buildings.
The air raid caused most of the dead and made an already hard-hit city largely leveled. Nevertheless, the post-war reconstruction took place very slowly.
While cities such as Frankfurt had been rebuilt fast by a central authority, only individual efforts were initially successful in rebuilding Mainz.
The reason for this was that the French wanted Mainz to expand and to become a model city. Mainz lay within the French-controlled sector of Germany and it was a French architect and town-planner, Marcel Lods , who produced a Le Corbusier-style plan of an ideal architecture.
Even after the failure of the model city plans it was the initiative of the French founding of the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz , elevation of Mainz to the state capital of Rhineland-Palatinate, the early resumption of the Mainz carnival driving the city in a positive development after the war.
The City Plan of by Ernst May allowed a regulated reconstruction for the first time. At the time of the two-thousand-years-anniversary in the city was largely reconstructed.
During the s and s the Oberstadt had been extended, Münchfeld and Lerchenberg added as suburbs, the Altstadttangente intersection of the old town , new neighbourhoods as Westring and Südring contributed to the extension.
By there remained only a few ruins. The town used Jacobsens activity for the Danish Novo erecting a new office and warehouse building to contact him.
The urban renewal of the old town changed the inner city. During the s the Kisselberg between Gonsenheim and Bretzenheim, the "Fort Malakoff Center" at the site of the old police barracks, the renewal of the Main Station and the demolition of the first post-war shopping center at the Markt followed by the erection of a new historicising building at the same place.
The city of Mainz is divided into 15 local districts according to the main statute of the city of Mainz. Each local district has a district administration of 13 members and a directly elected mayor, who is the chairman of the district administration.
This local council decides on important issues affecting the local area, however, the final decision on new policies is made by the Mainz's municipal council.
In accordance with section 29 paragraph 2 Local Government Act of Rhineland-Palatinate , which refers to municipalities of more than , inhabitants, the city council has 60 members.
Until , the districts of Bischofsheim now an independent town , Ginsheim-Gustavsburg which together are an independent town belonged to Mainz.
Travel to Mainz. Climate in Mainz. Economy of Mainz. Culture of Mainz. Religions of Mainz. Education in Mainz. Map of Mainz. Mainz is one of the centers of the German wine economy as a center for wine trade and the seat of the state's wine minister.
Due to the importance and history of the wine industry for the federal state, Rhineland-Palatinate is the only state to have such a department.
Since , the city is also member of the Great Wine Capitals Global Network GWC , an association of the most exclusive and well-known wineculture-cities of the world.
Many wine traders also work in the town. Mülheim an der Ruhr. Kempten Allgäu. Weiden in der Oberpfalz.
Brandenburg an der Havel. Frankfurt an der Oder. Landau in der Pfalz. Frankenthal Pfalz. Munich Metropolitan Region. Stuttgart Metropolitan Region.
Hamburg Metropolitan Region.